Help needed in getting kernel dump in QEMU VM

Dongliang Mu mudongliangabcd at
Fri Nov 12 21:40:25 EST 2021

Hi all KDUMP maintainers,

I would like to generate a kernel dump within QEMU VM.

1. I reproduced the kernel crash [1] in QEMU VM. The QEMU startup
script is as follows:

qemu-system-x86_64 \
  -kernel $KERNEL/arch/x86/boot/bzImage \
  -append "console=ttyS0 root=/dev/sda debug earlyprintk=serial slub_debug=QUZ"\
  -hda $IMAGE/stretch.img \
  -net user,hostfwd=tcp::10021-:22 -net nic \
  -enable-kvm \
  -nographic \
  -m 2G \
  -smp 2 \
  -pidfile \
  2>&1 | tee vm.log

The stretch.img is generated by Syzkaller script [1]. -kernel option
is convenient for loading any other kernels.

2. As the .config already has the essential
did not change this configuration file.

3. I installed kdump-tools crash kexec-tools makedumpfile
linux-image-4.9.0-13-amd64 in the stretch.img. Here I installed
linux-image-4.9.0-13-amd64 because there is no default kernel in /boot
directory. And to make kdump-tools working, I modify
/etc/default/kdump-tools in the following:


4. I append "crashkernel=384M-:128M" to the command line in the
startup script of QEMU.

5. After rebooting, kdump service can start successfully, and the
kdump-config shows:

root at syzkaller:~# kdump-config show
DUMP_MODE:        kdump
USE_KDUMP:        1
KDUMP_SYSCTL:     kernel.panic_on_oops=1
KDUMP_COREDIR:    /var/crash
crashkernel addr: 0x77000000
kdump initrd:
current state:    ready to kdump

kexec command:
  /sbin/kexec -p --command-line="earlyprintk=serial oops=panic
panic_on_warn=1 nmi_watchdog=panic panic=86400 net.ifnames=0
sysctl.kernel.hung_task_all_cpu_backtrace=1 ima_policy=tcb
kvm-intel.nested=1 nf-conntrack-ftp.ports=20000
nf-conntrack-tftp.ports=20000 nf-conntrack-sip.ports=20000
nf-conntrack-irc.ports=20000 nf-conntrack-sane.ports=20000
vivid.n_devs=16 vivid.multiplanar=1,2,1,2,1,2,1,2,1,2,1,2,1,2,1,2
netrom.nr_ndevs=16 rose.rose_ndevs=16 spec_store_bypass_disable=prctl
numa=fake=2 nopcid dummy_hcd.num=8 binder.debug_mask=0
rcupdate.rcu_expedited=1 root=/dev/sda console=ttyS0 vsyscall=native
watchdog_thresh=55 workqueue.watchdog_thresh=140 console=ttyS0
root=/dev/sda debug earlyprintk=serial slub_debug=QUZ irqpoll
nr_cpus=1 nousb systemd.unit=kdump-tools.service
ata_piix.prefer_ms_hyperv=0" --initrd=/boot/initrd.img-4.9.0-13-amd64

6. When I execute the PoC, the current kernel crashes and then reboots
into the dump-capture kernel. However, the kernel log shows, it is in
emergency mode,

You are in emergency mode. After logging in, type "journalctl -xb" to view
system logs, "systemctl reboot" to reboot, "systemctl default" or ^D to
try again to boot into default mode.

Finally, I would like to ask several questions:
1) is the emergency mode due to the incorrect command line?
2) is this the right way to generate kernel dump from QEMU VM?
3) Any comments on the above procedures?

Thanks very much in advance.

[1] general protection fault in reiserfs_security_init


My best regards to you.

     No System Is Safe!
     Dongliang Mu
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