mount /proc at boot as read-only

Lev Olshvang levonshe at
Sun Jan 6 13:13:26 EST 2019

Hello all,

I am trying to harden the embedded system.

Is it possible and safe to mount /proc file system in a read-only mode and how to do this?
I have embedded system with systemd where /proc is mounted rw.
I suspect that systemd mounts it when it bebgns to bootsrtap user space. 

On my currently idle and small embedded board and on QEMU I was able to remount /proc read-only.
But when I changed fstab to mount it as a read-only it  is still mounted 
rw,relatime after reboot.

So who mounts it first ?
Is it hardcoded in systemd  when it starts process of PID 1 or in a kernel?


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